You are here:
Home Individuals and Families Prostate Cancer Screening

Prostate Cancer Screening

Welcome

This website is for men who are thinking about prostateProstate is a gland in males, about the size of a walnut. It stores the fluid that makes up semen. cancer screening because they have a family historyHaving a family history of cancer means having one or more close blood relatives in the family who have had cancer. These relatives could be on either your mother's and/or father's side of the family. of prostate cancerProstate cancer is when cancer cells divide and grow in the prostate gland.. It is not designed to either encourage or discourage screening for prostate cancer. The decision about screening is yours and there is no right or wrong decision. The purpose of this website is to help you to make an informed choice about prostate cancer screening.

Using this website will help

  • Learn about the possible benefits and harms of prostate cancer screening in your situation
  • Make a decision about prostate cancer screening
  • Clarify what is important to you in making a decision about prostate cancer screening

 

                Requested reading

                Please read each of the following pages and fill out your worksheet.

                Site navigation

                You may use the 'Next' and 'Previous' links at the bottom of each page, or the menu on the left hand side to move through the website.

                Throughout the website, we have used numbers in square brackets to refer to science studies. Hover over these numbers for details. A full list of these science studies is provided.

                Hovering over words in italics will show you their meaning.

                What is prostate cancer?

                ProstateProstate is a gland in males, about the size of a walnut. It stores the fluid that makes up semen. cancer is a tumour (or growth) that starts in the prostate gland. The prostate gland sits just below the bladder. It is about the size of a golf ball. The prostate produces part of the fluid that makes up semen and nourishes the sperm.

                Prostate cancerProstate cancer is when cancer cells divide and grow in the prostate gland. is the most common cancer in Australian men [1] Reference 1:
                Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Australasian Association of Cancer Registries 2012. Cancer in Australia: an overview, 2012. Cancer series no. 74. Cat. no. CAN 70. Canberra: AIHW. View all
                . It is also the second leading cause of cancer death in Australian men[2]Reference 2:
                The Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia. (2007). Prostate cancer related statistics Accessed: 11 October 2007. View all
                [3]Reference 3:
                Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Australia's Health 2008. Cat. No. AUS 99. In. Canberra: AIHW; 2008. View all
                . Note, however, that most men are more likely to die of other causes, like heart disease, than prostate cancer[3]Reference 3:
                Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Australia's Health 2008. Cat. No. AUS 99. In. Canberra: AIHW; 2008. View all
                . More than 100 out of 1000 Australian men (that is, more than 10%) will develop prostate cancer before they turn 85[2]Reference 2:
                The Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia. (2007). Prostate cancer related statistics Accessed: 11 October 2007. View all
                Prostate cancer is less common in younger men. For unscreened men in their forties with no family historyHaving a family history of cancer means having one or more close blood relatives in the family who have had cancer. These relatives could be on either your mother's and/or father's side of the family. of prostate cancer, the chance of developing this cancer in the next 10 years is about 0.2 in 1000 (about 0.02%). For unscreened men in their seventies with no family history of prostate cancer, the chance of developing this cancer in the next 10 years is about 56.8 in 1000 (5.7%).

                Prostate cancers also tend to be slow-growing[4]Reference 4:
                The Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia. (2009). The Prostate - What is it? Accessed: 5 January 2009. View all
                . Some prostate cancers are harmless, and never cause symptoms so men are unaware they have it. So, only about 10 in 1000 men (about 1%) die from prostate cancer[3]Reference 3:
                Australian Institute of Health and Welfare: Australia's Health 2008. Cat. No. AUS 99. In. Canberra: AIHW; 2008. View all
                . Prostate cancer, however, varies across men and can be very serious. Some cancers grow very slowly and don’t threaten life. Others grow more quickly and do threaten life[4]Reference 4:
                The Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia. (2009). The Prostate - What is it? Accessed: 5 January 2009. View all
                . Prostate cancer typically causes no symptoms in its early stages. As it progresses, men may have problems with urination and with sexual function. These symptoms, however, can also indicate the presence of other diseases that are not prostate cancer[5]Reference 5:
                Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                .

                What increases the chances of developing prostate cancer?

                The causes of prostate cancer are largely unknown. We do know, however, about three risk factors for developing prostate cancer[6]Reference 6:
                Roehl KA et al: Characteristics of Patients With Familial Versus Sporadic Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urology 2006, 176(6):2438-2442. View all
                . These are:

                1. Age: Men's chances of developing prostate cancer increase as they get older.

                2. Having a family history of prostate cancer: This means having one or more close male blood relativesBlood relatives are family members related to you by birth. Blood relatives do not include family members related to you by marriage or adoption. who have, or has had, prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is more likely to occur in men who have at least one close blood relative with prostate cancer. Close male blood relatives include –

                  A man’s risk of prostate cancer increases with more affected male relatives or if a family member has been diagnosed at a younger age[8]Reference 8:
                  Zeegers MPA et al: Empiric risk of prostate carcinoma for relatives of patients with prostate carcinoma. Cancer 2003, 97:1894-1903. View all
                  . Having a family history does not mean that a man will definitely develop prostate cancer. This only means that he has a higher chance of developing prostate cancer compared to a man with no family history of prostate cancer[6]Reference 6:
                  Roehl KA et al: Characteristics of Patients With Familial Versus Sporadic Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urology 2006, 176(6):2438-2442. View all
                  .

                3. Ethnicity: Men from some ethnic groups can have slightly different chances of developing prostate cancer[9]Reference 9:
                  Hsing AW et al: Prostate cancer epidemiology. Frontiers in Bioscience 2006, 11:1388-1413. View all
                  . For example, rates of prostate cancer are higher among African American males than among white American males[10]Reference 10:
                  Hsing AW et al: Trends and patterns of prostate cancer: What do they suggest? Epidemiologic Reviews 2001, 23(1):3-13. View all
                  .

                Can you prevent prostate cancer?

                Currently there are no proven effective ways to prevent prostate cancer. There are however, some things that you can do to possibly reduce your chance of developing prostate cancer. Optional reading on possible reduction of prostate cancer risk is available.

                Family history

                Why do some families encounter prostate cancer more than others?

                There are three reasons men might have a family historyHaving a family history of cancer means having one or more close blood relatives in the family who have had cancer. These relatives could be on either your mother's and/or father's side of the family. of prostateProstate is a gland in males, about the size of a walnut. It stores the fluid that makes up semen. cancer.

                1. Just by chance
                  Prostate cancerProstate cancer is when cancer cells divide and grow in the prostate gland. is a common disease. People are living longer so our extended families can cover several generations, we talk about our health and we do more tests.  All of these factors mean there may be a few cases in your family but this can be just by chance rather than genetics. [7]Reference 7:
                  Centre for Genetics Education. (2007). Fact Sheet 51: Prostate cancer and inherited predisposition - Cancer genetics 5. Accessed: 3 March 2009. View all
                  .
                2. Environmental factors
                  Many families live in similar environments. This means they often share similar diets and lifestyles. These environmental factors may influence their chance of developing prostate cancer.
                3. Inherited factors
                  It is thought that changes in not just one but many genes may be associated with the development of prostate cancer.  While a number of 'cancer protection' genes in which inherited changes that make the genes faulty (mutations) have been linked to prostate cancer, no gene that contributes to a significant proportion of hereditary prostate cancer has yet been identified.  A small proportion of prostate cancers may be associated with inheriting a faulty copy of the genes predisposing to breast and ovarian cancer in women (BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes).  Men who have a strong family history of female relatives with breast and/or ovarian cancer, or where a faulty BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene has been identified in a relative, have a small increased risk of developing prostate cancer.  For these families, Genetic Counselling and Family Cancer services are available to clarify an individual's risk and to discuss their options.  However, there is no single genetic test that can measure this risk at present [18]Reference 18:
                  Edwards SM et al: Unravelling the genetics of prostate cancer. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics 2004, 129(1):65-73. View all
                  . It is worth noting that most cases of prostate cancer are not due to an inherited risk of developing the disease. Also, note that whilst genes may play a role in a man’s risk of developing prostate cancer, other things like lifestyle choices can modify the effects of genes [5]Reference 5:
                  Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                  .

                Is it common to inherit an increased chance of developing prostate cancer?

                No. Most prostate cancers are not caused by inherited factors. Only about 5% of all men who develop prostate cancer do so because of their family history of prostate cancer [6]Reference 6:
                Roehl KA et al: Characteristics of Patients With Familial Versus Sporadic Prostate Cancer. The Journal of Urology 2006, 176(6):2438-2442. View all
                .

                This means that in any group of 1000 Australian men about...

                Prostate cancer screening

                What is a screening test?

                ‘Screening’ generally means looking for markers of early disease in people who have no symptoms[18]Reference 18:
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prostate cancer screening: A decision guide. Accessed: 27 January 2009. View all
                . Prostate is a gland in males, about the size of a walnut. It stores the fluid that makes up semen. Screening is different to many other tests which are performed when you have a problem or a symptom.  In that case the doctor is aiming to make a diagnosis.

                What is prostate cancer screening?

                There are two tests available that might help to find prostate cancer early.

                1. A rectal exam: This involves a doctor putting a finger in the rectumRectum is the part of the gut where solid waste is stored before it is passed from the body. to check for lumps on the prostate gland. Prostate cancerProstate cancer is when cancer cells divide and grow in the prostate gland. needs to be quite big for the doctor to feel it this way. So, this means that some cancers are missed using this test.
                2. A PSA test: A PSA test is a blood test that measures the amount of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) in the blood. PSA is a protein made in the prostate. All men have PSA in the blood and your body makes more PSA as you age[19]Reference 19:
                  The Cancer Council NSW. (2007). Understanding prostate cancer: A guide for men with cancer, their families and friends. Accessed: 6 January 2009. View all
                  . A high level of PSA can be a sign of prostate problems.

                Having a rectal exam and a PSA test together may increase the chances of finding cancer if it is present. These tests alone cannot tell you for certain if you have prostate cancer. Further tests are needed.

                Possible results from a PSA test

                Men who have a PSA test will be told either that their:

                1. PSA level is in the normal range: If your PSA level is in the normal range, it is less likely that there is a problem with your prostate. However, there is a small chance that you could have prostate cancer even if your PSA test is in the normal range[20]Reference 20:
                  Harris R et al: Screening for prostate cancer: an update of the evidence for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force.[see comment]. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002, 137(11):917-929. View all
                  . Like all tests, PSA tests are not always accurate.
                  Or:
                2. PSA level is higher than normal: Around 10% of men who have a PSA test will have a PSA level that is higher than normal. This result means it is more likely that there is a problem with the prostate. This could be caused by prostate cancer or by an infection or a non-cancer (benign) condition (e.g., benign prostatic hyperplasiaBenign prostatic hyperplasia (or BPH) is a non cancer condition. It involves an increase in the size of the prostate gland.BPHBenign prostatic hyperplasia (or BPH) is a non cancer condition. It involves an increase in the size of the prostate gland.’ or prostatitisProstatitis is a non cancer condition. It occurs when the prostate becomes infected or inflamed.). Most men with a higher than normal PSA test result do not have prostate cancer[5]Reference 5:
                  Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                  .

                Note: when your PSA is in the normal range, the rate of change of your PSA levels may be more important than the actual level[5]Reference 5:
                Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                .

                Finding out if it is prostate cancer

                More tests are needed if a man’s PSA level is higher than normal. This is the only way of finding out which men have prostate cancer and which men do not. These tests include a biopsy.  It involves a specialist ( urologist) placing an ultrasound device in the rectum to see the prostate and using a fine needle to take samples for analysis.  It's done with a local anaesthetic and you're given antibiotics to prevent a possible infection. A biopsy removes small samples of the prostate gland to test them for prostate cancer. Serious side-effects from having a biopsy are rare. A small number of men may develop a urinary tract infection or may experience fevers after having a biopsy[5]Reference 5:
                Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                . Some men may also notice some blood in their urine, stools or semen[5]Reference 5:
                Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                . If the biopsy shows you have prostate cancer, then you will need to decide what treatment is best for you.

                Many men with a high PSA level will be told they do not have prostate cancer after they have had a biopsy or an ultrasound. It is still possible for them to have prostate cancer that was not found by the tests, but this is quite unlikely.

                What happens after a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer?

                If a man is diagnosed with prostate cancer he may be offered the following options:

                1. Watchful waiting: Some men will choose to ask their doctor to watch their cancer with regular tests before having any treatment. This is because some cancers are slow growing and may never cause a problem. This option also avoids the side-effects of prostate cancer treatment. However, there is a risk that the cancer may progress and become incurable with this option.
                2. Surgery to remove the prostate gland: If the cancer is confined to the prostate, this may remove all the prostate cancer. It is possible, however, that the cancer will return. Surgeons may offer different surgeries depending on the size of the cancer. These surgeries range from a radical prostatectomyRadical prostatectomy involves removing the whole prostate. to nerve-sparing surgeryNerve-sparing surgery is a type of surgery for prostate cancer in which the parts of the body needed for erections and urinating are not affected..
                3. Radiotherapy: This involves using x-rays aimed at the pelvis to kill the cancer cells. It is possible that this treatment may not remove all the cancer cells in the prostate gland.
                4. Brachytherapy: This is a newer treatment for prostate cancer. It involves placing radioactive material into the prostate cancer to kill the cancer cells. As with radiotherapy, it is possible that this treatment will not remove all the cancer cells in the prostate gland.

                All cancer treatments have the potential to cause problems (i.e., side-effects). The most likely side-effects from prostate cancer treatment are impotenceImpotence is the inability to obtain or maintain an erection. and incontinenceIncontinence is the inability to control the loss of urine..

                Will PSA testing stop me dying from prostate cancer?

                Large research studies following men who have, and men who have not, undergone PSA testing showed varying results for the likelihood of dying from prostate cancer over 4 to 10 years.[21]Reference 21:
                Postma R et al: Cancer detection and cancer characteristics in the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer (ERSPC) - Section Rotterdam: A Comparison of Two Rounds of Screening. European Urology 2007, 52(1):89-97. View all
                [22]Reference 22:
                Illic D et al: Screening for prostate cancer: A Cochrane systematic review. Cancer Causes Control 2007, 18:279-285. View all
                [23]Reference 23:
                Oberaigner W et al: Reduction of Prostate Cancer Mortality in Tyrol, Austria, after Introduction of Prostate-specific Antigen Testing. American Journal of Epidemiology 2006, 164(4):376-384. View all
                . One study showed no difference[24]Reference 24:
                Andriole GL et al: Mortality Results from a Randomized Prostate-Cancer Screening Trial. New England Journal of Medicine 2009, 360(13):1310-1319. View all
                and another showed that PSA tested men were 20% less likely to die from prostate cancer over the 4 years of following them. [25]Reference 25:
                Schroder FH et al: Screening and Prostate-Cancer Mortality in a Randomized European Study. New England Journal of Medicine 2009, 360(13):1320-1328. View all
                . The research also suggests that about half of the cases of prostate cancer detected by PSA screening would never cause symptoms.[26]Reference 26:
                Draisma G et al: Lead times and overdetection due to prostate-specific antigen screening: Estimates from the European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 2003, 95(12):868-878. View all
                .  Side effects of treatment can sometimes cause death.  If we treat cancers that don't need treating then we inevitably cause harm to people who would otherwise have been well.  At present we are not able to identify which prostate cancers will cause harm and should be treated, and which will not.[

                The next part of the website gives you information about your chances of being diagnosed with prostate cancer if you have a PSA test every year for the next 10 years. It also gives you information about your chances of dying from prostate cancer if you have a PSA test every year for the next 10 years. The numbers provided on the next two screens are only estimates. They are based on the age and family history details you provided at the beginning of the website and on your current risk of developing prostate cancer. The figures refer to a 10 year period only, because your risk of prostate cancer changes with age. The estimates we have provided use the best numbers from the latest evidence available. They may change in the future. Also, we have presented the best-case scenario for PSA testing, rather than the worst. That is, we provide the best numbers published for the outcomes of PSA testing.


                Side-effects of prostate cancer treatment

                All cancer treatments have the potential to cause problems (i.e., side-effects). The most likely side-effects from prostateProstate is a gland in males, about the size of a walnut. It stores the fluid that makes up semen. cancer treatment are impotenceImpotence is the inability to obtain or maintain an erection. and incontinenceIncontinence is the inability to control the loss of urine.. The chances of these side-effects* are listed below.

                TreatmentImpotenceIncontinenceRectal problems
                Surgery Around 30-50% of men will be impotent after surgery and will be impotent up to 5 years post surgery. The figures may be higher if nerve-sparing surgery is not possible. Around 5-20% of men will leak urine after surgery. There are no rectal side-effects of surgery.
                Radiotherapy Around 30-50% of men will be impotent 5 years after radiotherapy. Around 1-2% of men will leak urine after radiotherapy. About 5% of men will experience severe urinary bother (frequent urination, pain, urgent need to urinate). Bowel problems are more likely after radiotherapy, compared to surgery. These problems may include looser and more frequent bowel movements, increased wind, and possible bleeding.
                Brachytherapy

                About 30-50% of men will be impotent 5 years after this treatment[5]Reference 5:
                Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                . [28] Reference 28. Smith DP et al. Quality of life three years after diagnosis of localised prostate cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2009. http://www.bmj.com/
                cgi/content/full/bmj.b4817

                Around 1-2% of men will leak urine after brachytherapy. Men who have this treatment are more likely to experience urinary bother (frequent urination, pain, urgent need to urinate) compared to men who have surgery or radiotherapy[5]Reference 5:
                Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                . [28] Reference 28. Smith DP et al. Quality of life three years after diagnosis of localised prostate cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2009. http://www.bmj.com/
                cgi/content/full/bmj.b4817
                Most men will experience some short-term bowel problems such as diarrhoea after brachytherapy. A very small number may experience longer term bowel effects such as persistent diarrhoea[5]Reference 5:
                Carter HB: Prostate disorders. In: The Johns Hopkins White Papers. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins Medicine; 2008. View all
                . [28] Reference 28. Smith DP et al. Quality of life three years after diagnosis of localised prostate cancer: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2009. http://www.bmj.com/
                cgi/content/full/bmj.b4817

                * The figures in the table give only a rough guide. Your chance of developing these side-effects might be higher or lower than these estimates. This will depend on the size of the cancer and the specific treatments you choose. Most men will also be infertile after treatment for prostate cancerProstate cancer is when cancer cells divide and grow in the prostate gland..

                Optional reading on some of the possible outcomes of having a PSA test is available.

                My Personal worksheet

                What is important to me?

                Only you can decide whether PSA testing is right for you. There may be lots of reasons why PSA testing is a good idea or a bad idea for you. Part of making a good decision is to consider all the pros and cons of having a PSA test at the same time. This worksheet is designed to help you to make an informed decision about PSA testing. It will help you to put all the facts together and to weigh up what is important to you. The decision about PSA testing is yours and there is no right or wrong decision.

                There are two example worksheets available to view, filled out by other men in a similar situation.

                Print this page to begin your work sheet.

                My worksheet

                1. Clarify the decision:

                What is the decision I face?
                I am deciding whether or not to have a PSA test.

                My reason for making this decision is...

                 

                 

                2. Weigh the options:

                Personal
                importance
                Pros of PSA testingConst of PSA testingPersonal
                Importance

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                 

                3. How sure I feel:

                At this point in time, are you leaning towards wanting to have a PSA test, or not?


                4. Next steps

                What I need to do before I decide about PSA testing

                 

                 

                 

                Further information

                Where to from here?

                1. Health professionals
                  You may want to talk to your GP or urologist about your family historyHaving a family history of cancer means having one or more close blood relatives in the family who have had cancer. These relatives could be on either your mother's and/or father's side of the family. of prostateProstate is a gland in males, about the size of a walnut. It stores the fluid that makes up semen. cancer. They may also refer you to a family cancer clinicA family cancer clinic team may include: A specialist (clinical geneticist or oncologist) - these are doctors who have done specialist training in genetics or cancer medicine after their general medical training, and a genetic counsellor - genetic counsellors are university trained health professionals who have specialist training in counselling and in genetics.. At the moment, these clinics do not see many men with a family history of prostate cancerProstate cancer is when cancer cells divide and grow in the prostate gland.. These clinics can, however, help people with a family history of cancer to decide how to manage their cancer risk. Some family cancer clinics also run research studies that you may want to take part in. If you would like to go to a family cancer clinic, ask your doctor for a referral.

                2. Helpful organisations
                  A number of organisations can provide you with useful support. They have very helpful websites. They may also be able to send you helpful books and articles about topics that concern you.

                  Cancer Council Helpline 13 11 20
                  This is a free and confidential phone service provided by each state and territory cancer organisation.

                  Centre for Genetics Education
                  RNS Community Health Centre,
                  Level 5, 2c Herbert Street,
                  St Leonards, NSW 2065, Australia.
                  Phone: (02) 9462 9599. Fax: (02) 9906 7529.
                  Website: www.genetics.edu.au Email: contact@genetics.edu.au

                3. The Cancer Council Australia
                  The Cancer Council has more information about hereditary cancers at the following website. However, at the moment they have very little information for people with a family history of prostate cancer. www.cancer.org.au/AboutCancer/FamilyCancers.htm

                  The NSW Cancer Institute
                  The Cancer Institute NSW is Australia’s first statewide, government supported cancer control agency. You can learn more about cancer in Australia from their website at www.cancerinstitute.org.au. Click on eviQ: Cancer treatments online and from there, click Patient & Carer. You can find more information for people with a family history of cancer from the Cancer Genetics tab. At this stage the website provides very little information for men with a family history of prostate cancer.

                  The Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia
                  The Prostate Cancer Foundation of Australia (PCFA) is the national body for prostate cancer in Australia. The foundation aims to play a vital role in the fight against prostate cancer. All of its resources are devoted towards reducing the impact of prostate cancer on the community. You can contact them on the Freecall number: 1800 220 099. Their website is also very helpful, and can be found at: www.prostate.org.au

                  The Urological Society of Australia and New Zealand
                  This is a professional society for urological surgeons in Australia and New Zealand. Their website provides a large list of urologists in all areas of Australia and New Zealand. Information is also provided about prostate cancer and its treatment. The Society can be contacted on (02) 9362 8644, and their website is: www.usanz.org.au

                4. Other helpful websites
                  There are a number of very useful overseas websites which provide information about prostate cancer. These include:

                Acknowledgements/Copyright & DIsclaimer

                Acknowledgements


                The development and evaluation of this website was supported by a Strategic Research Partnership grant from the Cancer Council of NSW.


                This website was developed by:


                CE Wakefield - Psychologist, PhD. School of Women's and Children's Health, University of New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia

                A Barratt - Epidemiologist, PhD. School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

                B Meiser - Psychologist, PhD. Department of Medical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia

                K Watts - Behavioural Scientist, PhD. Department of Medical Oncology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Randwick, NSW, Australia

                K Howard - Epidemiologist, PhD. School of Public Health, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

                M Patel - Urological Cancer Surgeon, MBBS, MMFRACF. Department of Surgery, University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

                C Gaff - Genetic Counsellor, PhD. Genetic Health Services Victoria and the Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Parkville, Vic, Australia

                G Mann - Genetic Epidemiologist, PhD. Westmead Institute for Cancer Research, University of Sydney at Westmead Millennium Institute, NSW, Australia

                E Lobb - Clinical Associate Professor, PhD. Calvary Health Care Sydney and Cunningham Centre for Palliative Care, NSW, Australia

                J Ramsay - Consumer Representative. Urology Oncology Program NSW, CCORE, Liverpool Hospital, NSW, Australia

                We would also like to thank the following people for their invaluable assistance in the development of this website: Melina Gattelari, Carole Pinnock, Ursula Sansom-Daly, and Graeme Suthers.

                The design of this website is based on the Ottawa Personal Decision Guide (OPDG), developed by O’Connor, Jacobsen, and Stacey, 2002.

                Copyright

                All of the material on the study website, namely www.prostatescreening.org.au, is copyright.

                Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, no part may be reproduced, re-transmitted, distributed or commercialised by any process without prior written permission from the Psychosocial Research Group (PRG).

                Requests and enquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to -

                Associate Professor Bettina Meiser
                Prince of Wales Clinical School
                Level 4, Lowy Research Centre
                University of NSW
                Sydney NSW 2052
                b.meiser@unsw.edu.au

                Disclaimer

                The information contained in this website is not intended to be used as a substitute for an independent health
                professional’s advice. The Psychosocial Research Group (PRG) does not accept any liability for any injury, loss or damage incurred by use of or reliance on this information. PRG develops material based on the best evidence available however PRG cannot guarantee and assumes no legal responsibility for the currency or completeness of the information.

                The views or opinions stated in external resources which are linked to this website do not necessarily reflect those of PRG.

                None of the developers of this website will benefit personally or professionally from any choices that you may make about prostate cancer screening on the basis of the information provided.

                Privacy

                The Psychosocial Research Group (PRG) recognises the importance of protecting the privacy of personal
                information.

                PRG is subject to the National Privacy Principles (NPPs) contained in the Privacy Act 1988. The National Privacy
                Principles set out the way in which personal information must be treated. In summary, “personal information” is
                information or an opinion relating to an individual which can be used to identify that individual.This Privacy Policy does not apply to any acts and practices relating to employee records of our current and former
                employees.

                How we collect personal information
                We collect personal information directly from the individual to whom the information relates.At all times, this information remains strictly confidential.

                How we use and disclose personal information
                We use personal information to improve men's management of their prostate cancer risk and to support men in
                their decision-making about prostate cancer screening by providing accurate and accessible information to unaffected men with a family history of prostate cancer.

                We do not sell, rent or trade personal information.

                Readability

                This website uses plain language. It is designed so that it may be read by anyone who has completed Year eight at school.

                Last updated: